The national phytotherapy as the most vast part of national medicine, is major, but is not enough still probed property of the people. The oof it is accumulated by centuries-old national experience. Each people have the phytotherapy, with the singularities, with the history, with the worked out centuries methods of treatment and with a numerous dial-up of plants.
Concern to a national phytotherapy has the rises and wanes, it has not disappeared and now. And it is clear. The scientific medicine was repeatedly enriched at the expense of folk remedies.
Our national spring adonis (аDоNIS VеRNаLIS) – now the conventional, medical means which has entered in all pharmacopoeia. Our national everlastings paludal and a St. John’s wort ordinary are not less interesting, than the Chinese ginseng. History of an ancient mandragora (маNDRаGоRа оFFIсINаRUм, атRора маNDRаGоRа L. And other types (only 5 types) – "death’s head hawk", «a dead head», pokrin field from a set of nightshade family, with redkopodobnym a root. Grows in the south evropy, primarily in gretsii. In the Middle Ages to a mandragora assigned miracle properties. Contains gnostsiamin, Scopolaminum and other alkaloids.) Sinapismuses and sweet gums, history of treatment by suggestion – all it leaves deep into national medicine, and only in more later time national methods of treatment have gained scientific interpretation. Will not be, perhaps, major fabrication if to tell that Penicillinum is unclosed not whom diverse, as any «the grandma makarihoj» approximately from with. Volitsy which one almost treated more hundred years ago purulent, triggered wounds a mildewed sour from grain «дIжки» (kits). Now, of course, and old "volitsa" became «free village», and great-grandsons of the grandma makarihi are not treated by a mildewed sour, and use in case of need Penicillinum from drugstores, but it is a lot of still "Penicillinums" is concealed in hiding places of national medicine and waits, while people of a science will extract them therefrom.
The author of true sketches, being the great patriot of case favourite by it, repeatedly voiced the inclining that now we have the unlimited capabilities systematically and comprehensively to learn this industry of national experience. Terming the transactions as "the open book» (it is is interquartile, wishing to "unclose" all concealed in sorcery), the author considered national medicine of a worthy science and meriting close learning. The close explorer can discover in it the facts, allowing to tap new vegetative medical means and to introduce corrective amendments in usage already applied in scientific medicine. We think that any doctor should concern to each folk remedy thoughtfully. Its smile when he auscultates to the story of the patient about treatment by any folk remedy, is good, if it is manner implication, but it is inappropriate, if is irony implication. It should or fix the attention on a means further to consider and learn it, or if to it uselessness and a harmfulness of this means is clear, easy to explain all it is to the patient.
The essence of a phytotherapy merits learning not only from the point of view of indisputable facts of its performance but also because the parents of this performance still not all are uncovered. Throughout all existence the person is intimately bound to flora. Plants minister to it nutriment and a human body so is adapted for this nutriment that without its some constituents cannot be bypassed and in the absence of them is ill. So avitaminoses, for example, unstrand at lack in nutriment of vitamins though the organism needs the minimum quantities last. By analogy to "the microelements" playing a significant role in phytophysiology (boron, manganese, zinc, cuprum, cobalt and so forth) It is possible to term them as "micromatters". It is necessary to think that not all such "micromatters" to us are already known. They can be in plants in amounts, almost imperceptible with chemical methods. Close and thoughtful learning of a national phytotherapy, undoubtedly, will help to tap still unknown "micromatters" among which one can appear not only new vitamins, alkaloids, glucosides, but also new groups reference, which one existences, was possiblly, we also do not guess.
At a collection of information about national simples it is necessary to meet references against this or that illness of one any plant more often. In the people at the same time there are very popular plants which one are applied at very many illnesses. In some cases it justifies in practice. We will recall, at least about such plants as a daisy wheel, a St. John’s wort, tsentavrija, wild strawberry, a ledum, etc. Is also such plants which one assign scalability of activity. M.A.Nosal in the long-term observations worked over such plants much and has united to them in the bunch of plants playfully termed as it «from all illnesses». Convergence on them presented in sketches, is in overwhelming majority effect of its observations and the inferences. About these plants that he considered noteworthy, the further checkout and learning is reported.
Rather is more rare, but it is doubtless with larger performance apply in the people not one plant, and a compound of miscellaneous plants, more often relatives on activity on an organism. It is clear if to mean a summation of activity of prisoners in them of matters. But, besides, in the people there are also compounds of the grasss having diametrically opposite activity. Having familiarised with separate plants in such compounds, the reader can discover "mismatch" in guard rope of their builders. Abandoning this problem unclosed, we will underline nevertheless the fact of their performance in some cases. We will pay attention, besides, to those plants in compounds (sometimes among them happen toxicant) which one are not directly treating the yielded illness, and fulfil, apparently, a role of stimulants of dying away living functions of any organ or organs.« If the organ completely is not obsolete and has saved though a spark of the life activity, it is necessary to start up a fire this spark »– more often gooril the author of these sketches. Here these"untrue"builders in compounds, most probably, in many events also"start up a fire"this spark. Observations over performance of national simples grant to us more often the right to guess that in the same plant in the presence of definitely operating matters are and diametrically the counteracting. If in a plant the poison it is simultaneous in it is contained there is also an antipoison; if there is a matter increasing a blood pressure then it is necessary to search for matter, step-down it. On the other hand, the same matter in one requirements can work, for example, poslabljajushche, in others – skrepljajushche.
It was already marked that the major role in a national phytotherapy is played by poisonous plants. Major performance of their activity when they are used in certain amounts in a compound with other simples is thus marked. Counting on a wide range primarily rural readers, the author of true sketches was afraid of events of inept use by poisonous plants and consequently has seated convergence only about some, more popular. When the capability to state these materials already in diverse aspect was introduced, its life has ended.
Convergence on national experience of treatment by poisonous plants more, than others, are sated by sorcery devices, charodejstva and so forth Why it is very difficult to discover in them «a rationalised pellet». Nevertheless more detailed data about them obtained from national experience, can bring a lot of new and is unconditional the useful. This field of national medicine, in our judgement, merits special attention of highly qualified explorers. Confirming to it I will point some facts.
In 1938, at collection of materials for one operation, I had to talk to the people completely cured of an epilepsy by vegetative compounds personally. The person who treated such patients, bunked then in lutskom district (now the Volynsk field). To learn the complete ratio of mixture of grasss, despite of all efforts, it was not possible and only it was possible to clarify that the ledum enters in a compound (LеDUм раLUSтRе L.) And any type of a spurge (еUрноRвIа L.). Treatment was heavy enough. The patient after taking the medicine ran into a state of any shock after which one there set in durating enough sleep. Further epilepsy attacks have stopped for ever.
Similar forms of treatment should to me be met and in other places (pochaev, tarnopolskoj region, etc.), And also to hear from other persons about treatment of diverse diseases (nervous breakdowns, a hysteria, madness), it is frequent with a positive take.
With discovery of antibiotics of a microbial parentage (from funguses, actinomycetes and bacteria) looks of scientists have been converted as well to higher plants. Now from them a row of the matters possessing the antimicrobial properties is already gained. There are bases to consider that the knowledge of national medicine, learning of its experience would allow more ustremlenno to direct attention to certain plants, on in what, under national data, it would be possible to guess retention of the antimicrobial matters first of all. There can not be a doubt that such matters, along with other functions, matter and for protection of plants against microbial taints.
At last, we will be shut down on meaning of a time of collection of simples, on what pays attention the people. The people mark miscellaneous performance of the simples collected not only in miscellaneous phases of evolution, but also at miscellaneous o’clock in the afternoon (at dawn, in the morning, at midday, in the evening or at night). Also it is necessary to pay attention To it and to explorers in spite of the fact that the collection time is arranged very often by all superstitions, mysticism and various "magical" routines. From a complex of all requirements determining synthesis and accumulating of medical-operating matters in a plant, luminous requirements, in our opinion, are the most relevant and the least learnt. The people have fixed these requirements. Therefore performance of simples depends not only on how they are suspended and as are saved, but also from in what season and in what time of day they are collected.
This book will fulfil the main role if will help learning to sample medicinal properties of plants from them, ground national experience, the most perspective and, further, to learn their activity, to tap operating chemicals and to enrich with that practice of the modern scientific medicine by new means. It is not necessary to scorn centuries-old national experience. The author was aimed to assemble this experience and to suppose it in the form of the book as he spoke, «on science desktop» for its comprehensive usage.
It were dreams of the author which one come true now.
In summary I consider as the debt to express gratitude to members of the Kharkov hospital company of prof. N.S.Harchenko which one one of the maiden has pointed worth of information and the materials assembled in m. of A.Nosalem, and Cand.Biol.Sci. and. To J.Soloveychik who in 1949 has familiarised with a part of hand-written materials of the author, has yielded it a row of advice and during illness of the author letters rendered it major encouragement in termination which one has interrupted death and which one, on the instructions of the academician of academy of Sciences ussr century G.Drobodko, I as the son of the author, has concluded, have handled and have added the materials collected by me personally.
Major friendly support would be rendered to the author in its transactions by Cand.Biol.Sci. the entomologist. I.Belsky, for what on behalf of the author and the I bring to it profound gratitude.
I bring also profound gratitude to hundreds those people from which one and to the author, and I personally managed to obtain materials for this book.
Willows. Nosal p r and l about e n and e.
Aloe tree-like (an aloe derevovidne) – аLое аRвоRеSсеNS мILL.
Synonyms: the Bitter aloe, a polypody root.
Set: LILIасеае – lily family.
The paleocrystic, aiphyllous, succulent plant attaining in the conditions of southern afriki altitude of 4 m. the Root mochkovidnyj, cylindrical, furcated. The caulis short, strongly branching, will organise a significant amount of suckers. Leaves large, meat, juicy, the xiphoid form, to 60 see Lengths, in a top hamper of caulises acervate in the form of the rosella, stebleobemljushchie, serovato-grey bloom, depth to 12-15 mm., with acanthceous edges and acanthas (waves) on each side. In the conditions of room crop leaves, as well as a plant, have smaller sizes. The central floral finger has a blossom cluster – a paintbrush of yellow-red or yellow flowers in length to 40 mm. A foetus – a rectangular approach traffic pattern of a cylindricity, zelenovato-brown bloom, seeds serovato-black, small and numerous. Blooming in room conditions happens very rarely as speak, time in 100 years, whence and a title – a bitter aloe.
L e to and r with t in e n n about e with y r e: Green leaves and juice received from them.
And about l about g and a h e with to and e about with about e n n about with t and. The aloe tree-like – a thermophilic plant which one is more narrow at temperature–2 than Celsius degree freezes out. It has adapted to requirements of wilderness and semi-deserts. At a major drought of an aloe will organise large meat leaves with the slow midpoint that contributes in accumulating of a considerable quantity of a moisture.
Grows on places with major percent of iron in sand which one lies on a surface of wilderness where in daylight saving time the soil so dries up that becomes firm, as a brick.
In vivo grows in the south afriki – in wilderness a blaze where make principal procurements of leaves of an aloe for extraction from them aloes (aloes the juice vapoured to dryness from aloe leaves) is termed.
In sssr it is wide rasrostraneno in room crop.
Under production conditions at us an aloe cultivate in medial azii and zakavkaze.
With about with t and in d e j with t in at ju shch and h in e shch e with t century of the Aloe tree-like and other types applied in medical practice, contain difficult, bitter on taste glikozidnye bonds, so-called glycosides (and their compound wears a title of aloins). At their fission the arabinose and an aloe-emodin-antrahinon or trioksimetilantrahion will be organised. Besides, in aloe juice organic acids (oxalic, aloetinovaja, etc.), And also tars, tanning matters, essential oils, vitamin "with", carotin are contained, etc.
P r and m e n e n and e. Medical properties of an aloe and an aloe received from its leaves were known still since dioskorida, plinija and tselsija, ancient Greeks, Romans and Arabs knew about them. Last considered that the aloe is the patience character wherefore it longly does not wither ("patience" in an Arabian way means "sabr", whence and a title "aloes"). The aloe is widely applied both in scientific, and in national medicine, and also in veterinary science.
In sssr the effective method of a garnering of an aloe from plant leaves is elaborated: Leaves beforehand slightly notch sideways in places othozhdenija in them from caulises, and then break together with a vagina that yields an escaping of losses of juice.
The academician of century P.Filatov has installed that the living tissue, both animal, and vegetative, abjointed from a living organism and placed in unfavorable conditions – in a dark location with low (to +3 Celsius degrees) temperature – and maintained there within 20-25 days, undergoes biological changes and works out in itself special matters (so-called biogenic stimulants) which one excite dying away vital processes in a tissue. The extract fabricated of leaves of an aloe on a method of century of P.Filatova, is applied for subcutaneous inektsy daily or every other day (only 30-40 sessions) on 1-4 ml. At treatment of eye diseases, and also a peptic ulcer of a maw and 12-perstnoj intestines.
Aloe fresh juice preserve 20 %-s’ solution of alcohol and apply at some diseases of a gastrointestinal tract (a typhoid, a dysentery, a chronic constipation, gastritises) in a dose one-two teaspoons three times a day for half an hour to meal. It is possible to use an aloe extract in a dry type (in pills for 0,1), Approximately twice more active, than a simple aloe, and also infusion (till 10-20 a thaw before meal three times a day).
Juice of an aloe and aloe long since apply as laxative. In heavy doses (0,5-1,0) Drugs have the strong aperient an effect, in insignificant (0,05-0,2) are a light laxative and tonic which one increases appetite and boosts peptic activity of a maw. The infusion of an aloe gained by extraction of a dry extract by 40 %-s’ alcohol, is assigned inside at a peptic ulcer 12-perstnoj intestines, diseases of a liver and t. The item
Syrup of an aloe with iron use at anaemia treatment.
At illnesses of a larynx and a pharynx gargle a mouth 50 %-s’ aqueous solution of juice of an aloe or drink a fresh juice three times a day on a teaspoon with milk.
As an external means juice of the aloe having bactericidal properties, apply at treatment of inveterate wounds, combustions, at a purulent inflammation of eyes or at a cataract (in the form of plugins).
The pharmacological committee of Ministry of Health sssr recommended an aloe emulsion in the capacity of a prophylactic and medical means at lesions of a skin owing to radial therapy, and also for treatment of combustions II and III levels; in gynecologic practice for treatment of diseases of external female sexual organs; at subacute and ostrovospalichelnyh skin processes (a dermatitis, eczemas, a psoriasis – cheshujchastom a herpes, a red plane herpes, etc.) (Backs, 1965).
With the prophylactic purpose an emulsion it is necessary to lubricate a skin after each beaming during all course (45 days). The emulsion is superimposed a shallow layer on a sick surface by two-three times a day and coat with a gauze napkin.
It is necessary to mark that in certain cases aloe application is contraindicative. So, juice from green leaves cannot be used at a hemorrhoids, a pyelonephritis, at matrix bleedings, at an excessive menses, at pregnancy and illnesses of cardiovascular system in a decompensation phase. Therefore to use aloe drugs follows only with the permission of the doctor.
And g r about t e h n and to and in about z d e l y in and n and I. A district select. For cultivation in field conditions of an aloe demands prolific and cultivated soils with neutral or acescent response. Heavy soils which one swim away, and water-logged districts are not suitable. Cultivated crops and the grasss seeded on a green material are considered as the best precursors.
Soil cultivation. Ploughing of soil for a field crop make in the early spring on depth 20-22 the field see 15-20 days prior to fit plough up on depth 12-15 see With a simultaneous braking. Before fit a section cultivate and again brake.
Manures bring under the main ploughing from account of 30-40 t/hectares. Simultaneously bring also mineral fertilizers: Phosphoric on 1,5-2,0 ts/hectares and potassium – on 1-1,2 ts/hectares.
For breeding take browses which one unstrand from dormant buds of the heels of caulises, and also apexes of caulises from adult plants and implant them in August-September in forcing beds with high-fertile soil.
Harvesting is made on a sampling basis: At first shear the lower and medial most developed leaves in length not less than 15 see, Abandoning on 8-9 topmost leaves on plants. The removed leaves case at once with air holes in altitude 23-30 see (On the way – no more than days).